2019 ASLA通用設計類榮譽獎:長春水文化生態園,吉林 / 水石設計

擁有80年歷史的凈水廠變身魅力非凡的城市公園

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設計公司:
位置:

“在中国东北的长春市,一座拥有80年历史的、原本已经关闭的水处理厂被改造成了魅力非凡的公园,使原本荒废的工业场地重新获得了生机。设计团队在线性的场地中置入了30万平方米的绿色空间,包括森林景观走廊,以及可供原生动植物生存的栖息地。众多历史建筑得到了谨慎细致的保留和改建。新的休闲场地和艺术空间为各年龄段的游客提供了富有活力的公园体验。这项设计不仅保留了场地的文化记忆,还前瞻性地展示了一个先进的可持续项目,包括基于既有净水设施而构建的复杂雨水系统。”
– 2019年评审委员会

“In Changchun in northeast China, a closed 80-year-old water treatment plant has been transformed into a remarkable public park that brings back to life a derelict industrial site. The designers threaded 300,000 square meters of green space through the linear site, including a forest landscape corridor and habitats for native flora and fauna. Many of the original historic structures were carefully and respectfully retained and repurposed. New areas for play, relaxation, and art activate the park for visitors of all ages. The design is at once an exercise in preserving cultural memory and a forward-looking demonstration of cutting-edge sustainability practices, including a sophisticated rainwater system appropriate for a former water purification facility.”
– 2019 Awards Jury

来自 ASLA 对gooood的分享。
Changchun Culture of Water Ecology Park, China by SHUISHI

点击查看谷德此前发布的长春水文化生态园项目,link to Changchun Culture & Ecology Park, China by W&R Group previously published on gooood

 

项目概述
PROJECT STATEMENT

长春水文化生态园是一个城市更新项目,其所在场地原本是一座具有80年历史的净水厂,在经过转型和功能置换后,已经成为一个文化和艺术社区。设计方案最大程度地保留了原始的生态环境、尊重了历史遗迹并迎合了当代生活方式。整体设计强调了三个特征。首先,借助景观思路,规划、建筑、景观以及艺术装置实现了相互交融的关系。第二,景观设计帮助构建了一个慢系统,一个原始的动植物生态系统以及水生态自净系统。第三,对设计的严格把控突出了场地的功能以及人性化的体验。

▲总平面图:占地32公顷的城市更新项目对一座拥有80年历史的水厂进行了改造。 Master Plan: A 32-hectare regeneration project is transformed from an 80-year-old water supply plant.

 

项目说明
PROJECT NARRATIVE

背景

长春南岭水厂于1932年建立于伪满时期。当时政府实施了《大新京都市计划》,旨在建立和改善城市供水系统,长春市的第一座水厂便由此落成。既有水厂借助三条沟道被建造在南岭周围的一个布满植被的低矮山坡上。在过去的84年中这里先后已有7套水净化系统得以建成。在经过沉淀、过滤、絮凝和消毒之后,干净的水被源源不断地引向数千个家庭,实现了与城市的共同成长。

2016年,旧水厂的使命正式结束。长春市建委会在“百里伊通河项目”实施期间启动了南岭水厂的开发计划。作为长春市二级文化保护场地,新规划的公园在开放后为市民带来了新的生活空间,使其能够与历史建筑和原生动植物在32公顷的场地中和谐共处。考虑到场地蕴含的巨大历史价值和文化重要性,以及原始栖息地对于整个公园乃至城市的意义,设计团队尽最大可能保留和利用了场地特征。最终,公园于2018年10月正式向市民开放。

目的:城市共生

经过重建的公园不仅仅是一次功能和形式上的置入和替换,它还是南岭水厂的一次重生、一场工业结构调整后的经济复兴,以及一种人与环境以及城市之间的和谐共生。

设计方法

1.重塑人与自然的关系:城市活动的涌入必然会对自然环境产生影响。公园内的生态连接线将既有的沟道、建筑、森林、露天水池与城市界面有机地连接起来,同时建立了多样的社交空间以丰富公园的游览系统。树林中的高架桥为游客带来了难忘的感官体验,同时也为公园中的本地动植物提供了栖息地和迁徙的路径,形成了人与动植物和谐共存的生态结构,为城市与自然环境的融合建立了模型。

利用35米的场地高差,结合既有的雨水沟道、沉淀池和净水系统,设计团队在公园中构建了新的雨水系统。原始的材料得到了回收,而经过清洁的枯树以养分的形式被归还给森林和土地。废弃的木材和石材被转化为铺路材料,尽可能地减少了碳排放量。

2.植物和动物的多样性:设计团队对场地中动植物的构成、数量、分布模式、栖息地、生态习性以及季节性变化进行了研究,对入侵的树种进行了清除并补充了大量的本土植物,以保证生态系统的多样性和稳定性,同时为本地动物提供栖居和繁殖的空间。

3.恢复城市活力:原本被弃置的场地如今被改造成了充满活力和艺术气息的城市公共空间,充分展现了设计在城市更新中的重要性。设计团队使旧沉淀池的顶部成为公园景观的一部分,并在此基础上建造了一个多功能的草坪活动空间。

该空间与其他建筑和艺术装置共同构成了公园的核心“剧场”,可以用来举办展览和音乐会等各类城市活动;树林中的坚硬铺路被改造成了儿童游乐场。古树下的休憩空间和旧工厂设施与场地结合在一起,提供了众多趣味性的活动空间,使游客们能在体验水净化的过程中感受到过去与现在的无缝衔接。

4.扩展历史和文化记忆:通过对场地的工业肌理以及历史环境的保护和利用,公园的特征和历史记忆得到了强调。既有的净水系统和建筑物得到了保护和修复,同时保留了大型树木、工业设施和净水池,并将水池改造为一个净水技术博物馆,使公众可以了解到水的净化过程,并充分体验80年前的空间场景,追寻场地的历史记忆。

沉淀作为公园中最具标志性的空间,被设计为开合与封闭状态相结合的形式。开放的沉淀池恢复了旧蓄水池的功能,并整合了亲水栈桥、水生植物和亲水平台,以形成生态湿地;封闭的沉淀池保留了底部的通风走廊和结构系统,置入了能够激发公众参与的功能元素和艺术装置。经过重建的沉淀池将推动公民与历史空间之间的热烈互动与对话。

场地中废旧的及其也被保留下来并被赋予了新的艺术意象,在创造新城市主题的同时,与公民和环境产生了共振作用。

5.优化产业结构:公园的建筑中新置入了文化和创意办公室、企业、艺术中心、博物馆、展览馆等多种形式的功能空间,形成了开放、实用而生态的创意办公产业集群。产业结构的调整引发了存量土地的转型,激活了周围土地的价值。

结论

该设计通过对场地和城市带来的积极而广泛的影响,使市民们获得了城市归属感与自豪感,并重新唤起了旧工业区和社区的活力,实现了公民与自然环境以及历史场地之间的和谐共生。与此同时,方案也为政府在改善旧城区和旧工业区居民的生活质量、治理环境以及调整产业结构等方面提供了新的思路。

在公园开放后的6个月内,办公空间的租金稳步增长,社交团体活动也一直保持活跃。公园的建成不仅为市中心带来了难得的绿地,同时也标志着城市服务设施的进一步改善。随着经营模式的不断更新,该区域也必将成为城市更新过程中最具影响力的一环。

▲下沉雨水花园:下沉的公共空间由封闭的水生植物沉淀池改造而来。Sunken Rain Garden: The sinking public space is transformed from closed water plant sedimentation tanks.

 

▲下沉雨水花园:尽最大可能保留历史痕迹,同时解决功能上的问题。Sunken Rain Garden: Maximize to preserve historical traces, dealing with functional measures.

 

▲下沉雨水花园:水源的净化与利用在空间上形成对话。Sunken Rain Garden: Spatial dialogue between water purification and water use.

 

▲下沉雨水花园:入口路径由旧的通风走廊改造而来。Sunken Rain Garden: Access space is transformed from the old ventilation corridors.

 

▲下沉雨水花园:项目对下沉的公共空间和历史建筑进行了综合的保护和利用。Sunken Rain Garden: Integrating protection and utilization of the sinking public space and historical buildings.

 

▲艺术剧场:坐落在丛林中的多功能艺术剧场可供开展各类市民活动。Art Theater: Multi-functional art theater in the jungle, carrying a wealth of civic activities.

 

▲艺术剧场:当代艺术装置通过沉淀池顶部的多功能草坪融入场地。Art Theater: Contemporary art installations are incorporated by using a multi-purpose lawn built on top of the sedimentation tank.

 

▲艺术剧场:当代艺术装置通过沉淀池顶部的多功能草坪融入场地。Art Theater: Contemporary art installations are incorporated by using a multi-purpose lawn built on top of the sedimentation tank.

 

▲艺术剧场:具有多种功能的公共活动空间。Art Theater: Public activity space with multiple functions

 

▲露天沉淀池:生态休闲湿地由净水沉淀池改造而来,形成建筑、植被与水相互交融的环境。Open-air Sedimentation Tank: Ecological leisure wetland is transformed from clear water sedimentation tanks, which forms an integrated environment of architecture, vegetation and water.

 

▲露天沉淀池:生态休闲湿地由净水沉淀池改造而来。Open-air Sedimentation Tank: Ecological leisure wetland is transformed from clear water sedimentation tanks.

 

▲露天沉淀池:基于既有沟道和沉淀池建造的雨水系统。Open-air Sedimentation Tank: Rainwater system constructed using original gullies and sedimentation tanks.

 

▲丛林中的高架桥:一个穿越树林和公共空间的步道系统。The Hanging Trestle in the Jungle: A pedestrian system running through the jungle and public spaces. 

 

▲痕迹:植物的原始状态,以及旧建筑的历史肌理。Traces: The original state of plants, the historical texture of old buildings.

 

▲鸟瞰图:项目最大程度地保留了原始的生态环境、尊重了历史遗迹并迎合了当代生活方式。Aerial View: Maximize to preserve the original ecological environment, maximize the respect for historical traces, and maximize the integration into contemporary lifestyles

 

PROJECT NARRATIVE

BACKGROUND

Changchun Nanling Waterwork was built in the Manchukuo period in 1932. The Daxinjing City Plan was implemented to establish and improve the water supply system of the city, and the first waterwork in Changchun was built. The waterwork was constructed on a low, lushly-vegetated hill around Nanling by using three gullies at site. Seven sets of water purification systems were built successively here over 84 years. After sedimentation, filtration, flocculation and disinfection, clean water flows steadily to thousands of households and grows together with the city.

In 2016, the old waterwork was replaced. Changchun Municipal Construction Committee, in conjunction with the Baili Yitong River Project, launched a development program for Nanling Waterwork. As a second-grade cultural protected destination in Changchun, the park, after opening, provides a new live space for the citizens, who coexist in harmony with the historic buildings, original flora and fauna on this 32-hectare site. Aware of the great historical value and cultural significance of the site remains and the original habitat to the entire park and even the city, the designers have retained the original environment as much as possible and maximized the use of the original features of the site. The park was open to the citizens in October 2018.

PURPOSE: URBAN SYMBIOSIS

The reconstructed park is not only the implantation and replacement of functions and forms, but also the rebirth of Nanling Waterwork, the economic regeneration after the adjustment of industrial structure, and the symbiosis between people and the environment and the city.

DESIGN METHOD

1. RESHAPING THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN MAN AND NATURE:

The influx of urban activities is bound to have an impact on the natural environment.The ecological connection line in the park has organically connected the original gullies, buildings, forests, open-air pools and urban interfaces, and diversified social venues have been also built to help enrich the park’s tour system. The hanging trestle in the jungle fills visitors with a unique sensory experience and provides habitat and migration corridor for native flora and fauna in the park, forming an ecological structure in which people coexist with animals and plants and building a model for the integration of cities and natural environment.

In the park, people use the site’s 35-meter drop, original rainwater gully, sedimentation tank and water purification system to construct a rainwater system. The primary materials are recycled, and the cleaned dead trees are returned to the forest and land as nutrients. Abandoned wood and stone are also converted into park paving materials to minimize carbon emissions.

2. DIVERSITY OF PLANTS AND ANIMALS:

Designers have carried out research on the composition, quantity, distribution pattern, habitat, ecological habits and seasonal dynamics of the flora and fauna, cleaned up the invasive tree species in the site and supplemented a large number of native plants, so as to ensure the diversity and stability of the ecosystem and provide a space for native animals to live and breed.

3. REVITALIZING THE CITY:

The old abandoned site was converted into a vibrant and artistic urban public space. It is the proof of the importance of design for urban renewal.The designers have incorporated the top of the old sedimentation tank, and built a multi-functional lawn activity space. Together with the buildings and art installations, it forms the core theater of the park, where a diversity of urban activities such as exhibitions and concerts are carried out; the old hard ground in the jungle has been turned into a playground for children. The rest space under ancient trees and the old industrial equipment transformation are implanted into the site, in combination with a lot of fun activities so that people could experience the original water purification process and feel the seamless connection of the past and present.

4. EXTENDING THE HISTORY AND CULTURAL MEMORY:

The park highlights the characteristics and historical memory of the project by protecting and utilizing the site’s industrial texture and historical context. Protecting and repairing the water purification system and building group in the site, the design preserves the original space such as large trees, industrial buildings and clean water pools, and turns it into a water purification technology museum, so that the public could learn the water purification process and fully experience the space scene 80 years ago, having a better memory of the site history.

The reservoir, the most unique iconic space in the park, is designed in a open or closed status. The open sedimentation tank restores the old water storage function and integrates hydrophilic trestle, aquatic plants and hydrophilic platforms to create an ecological wetland, while the closed sedimentation tank cuts the top structure, retains the old underlying ventilation corridor and structural system, and incorporates participatory urban functions and art installations. The reconstructed reservoir carries forward the strongest interaction and dialogue between the citizens and the historical space.

Those scrapped machines in the site are also retained and re-given a new artistic image, creating new urban topics and resonances with the citizens and the environment.

5. IMPROVING INDUSTRIAL RESTRUCTURING:

Cultural and creative offices, businesses, art centers, museums, exhibition halls and other formats are incorporated into the park’s buildings to establish an open, functional and ecological creative office industry cluster.The adjustment of the industrial structure has led to the transformation of the stock land and activated the value of the surrounding land.

CONCLUSION:

With its positive and extensive impact on the site and the city, this design has created a sense of urban belonging and pride for the citizens, inspired the vitality of the old industrial areas and regional communities in the city, achieved a harmonious symbiosis between the citizens and the natural environment and historical sites, and brought new ideas to the government’s effort to improve citizens’ life quality, environmental governance and industrial restructuring in the old city and old industrial areas. Within 6 months of the opening of the park, office rents grow steadily and social group events are always active. The completion of the park brings not only a sight of rare green forests in the city center, but also marks the improvement of urban service facilities. With the update of business format, which will lead to urban renewal, this area will surely become the most influential part in the city.

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